The scientists gathered dietary data from 353,751 people, ages 50–71, and then tracked how many of them died from diseases such as cancer and heart disease over 13 years.
Intake of individual sugars over the previous 12 months was assessed at baseline by using a 124-item National Institutes of Health (NIH) Diet History Questionnaire.
The researchers found that women who consumed the greatest amount of added sugars didn't have an elevated risk of mortality. However, the women who ate the most fructose faced a slightly higher chance of dying during the study period. It should be noted that this study shows association, not causation.
The researchers concluded that "In this large prospective study, total fructose intake was weakly positively associated with all-cause mortality in both women and men, whereas added sugar, sucrose, and added sucrose intakes were inversely associated with other-cause mortality in men. In our analyses, intake of added sugars was not associated with an increased risk of mortality."