A paper published in Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety reviews the physicochemical properties of honeys found around the world.
Honey consists of organic and inorganic constituents, and its chemical composition can be determined through several analytical methods, including spectroscopy. As of publication, 54 chemical elements in honey have been identified and fall into three groups: major or macroelements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, S, Cl); minor or trace elements (Al, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cd, Tl, Co, Ni, Rb, Ba, Be, Bi, U, V, Fe, Pt, Pd, Te, Hf, Mo, Sn, Sb, La, I, Sm, Tb, Dy, Sd, Th, Pr, Nd, Tm, Yb, Lu, Gd, Ho, Er, Ce, Cr, As, B, Br, Cd, Hg, Se, Sr); and heavy metals (trace elements that have a specific gravity at least five times higher than that of water and inorganic sources).
The paper, “Physicochemical Properties, Minerals, Trace Elements, and Heavy Metals in Honey of Different Origins: A Comprehensive Review,” examines how the concentration of minerals, trace elements, and heavy metals differ in honeys found around the world, meaning that the composition of these elements can be used to determine its geographical and botanical sources. It also discusses how an increased concentration of certain compounds in honey can be used as a bio-indicator of environmental pollution.